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The Hypogen Test(TM) has been tested on a wide variety of human subjects in case controlled studies (see Interpreting Test Results below). We encourage research groups to incorporate GRK4 single nucleotide polymorphisms, transgenic mice, and human cell models with GRK4 SNPs in their research projects. However, research use of this test requires a license from Hypogen, Inc. Please contact the Hypogen, Inc. Legal Department at

Reimbursement Information

There is currently no insurance or medicare/medicaid reimbursement for the Hypogen Test(TM). However, as the value of encouraging individuals to adopt healthy lifestyles becomes more generally accepted, we anticipate that insurance companies and especially the center for medicaid services (CMS) will become interested in reimbursing for this test.

Interpreting Test Results

The predictive value of the Hypogen Test(TM) has been established using classical risk analysis algorithms (1). Predictive odds ration has been derived from genetic analysis of ethnic populations of Japanese (2), Ghanaians(3), Caucasians(4,5,6), Philippinos(7), and Chinese(8).

Ordering Information

The Hypogen Test(TM) may be ordered for clinical studies using our online ordering method <http://?>, or for research protocols by sending a request to our Chief Technology Officer at

Research Tools

Hypogen, Inc. has developed a number of research tools that can facilitate the investigation of GRK4 single nucleotide polymorphisms in disease (see below).

Transgenic Mice

We have developed transgenic mice that express either the hypertensive, normotensive, or salt sensitive phenotype based on the expression of various GRK4 SNPs. To obtain access to these mouse models please contact the Chief Technology Officer at

In vitro cell cultures

Over 60 human renal proximal tubular cell lines have been isolated and immortalized from hypertensive subjects and controls. All cell lines have been genotyped for various hypertension and salt sensitivity SNPs as well as tested for selected phenotypes. Hypogen Inc. encourages research collaboration using these invaluable resources. Please contact the Chief Technology Officer for access to these cells

Pharmaceutical Pipeline

Hypogen Inc. has developed an antisense pharmaceutical for the reduction of blood pressure in animals and humans. We encourage research collaboration in this area. Please send any inquiries to the Chief Technology Officer at

Literature and Related Links

1. Bengra C, Mifflin TE, Khripin Y, Manunta P, Williams SM, Jose PA, and Felder RA. Genotyping of essential hypertension single-nucleotide polymorphisms by a homogeneous PCR method with universal energy transfer primers. Clin Chem 48: 2131-2140, 2002.

2. Gu D, Su S, Ge D, Chen S, Huang J, Li B, Chen R, and Qiang B. Association study with 33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 candidate genes for hypertension in Chinese. Hypertension 47: 1147-1154, 2006.

3. Lohmueller KE, Wong LJ, Mauney MM, Jiang L, Felder RA, Jose PA, and Williams SM. Patterns of genetic variation in the hypertension candidate gene GRK4: ethnic variation and haplotype structure. Ann Hum Genet 70: 27-41, 2006.

4. Sanada H, Yatabe J, Midorikawa S, Hashimoto S, Watanabe T, Moore JH, Ritchie MD, Williams SM, Pezzullo JC, Sasaki M, Eisner GM, Jose PA, and Felder RA. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms for diagnosis of salt-sensitive hypertension. Clin Chem 52: 352-360, 2006.

5. Speirs HJ, Katyk K, Kumar NN, Benjafield AV, Wang WY, and Morris BJ.Association of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 haplotypes, but not HSD3B1 or PTP1B polymorphisms, with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 22: 931-936, 2004.

6. Williams SM, Addy JH, Phillips JA, 3rd, Dai M, Kpodonu J, Afful J, Jackson H, Joseph K, Eason F, Murray MM, Epperson P, Aduonum A, Wong LJ, Jose PA, and Felder RA. Combinations of variations in multiple genes are associated with hypertension. Hypertension 36: 2-6, 2000.

7. Clinical trials on 600 specimens currently in progress.

8. Zhu H, Lu Y, Wang X, Treiber FA, Harshfield GA, Snieder H, and Dong Y. The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 gene affects blood pressure in young normotensive twins. Am J Hypertens 19: 61-66, 2006.

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